This psalm does not speak about resurrection, let alone the messiah resurrecting, let alone this messianic resurrection being joyful. This claimed prophecy ends one verse short of a death knell to Christianity and the need for Jesus to die for anyone's sins. T'hillim / Psalm 40:6 says "You desired neither sacrifice nor meal offering; You dug ears for me; a burnt offering or a sin offering You did not request."
Let's repeat that: G-D DESIRES NEITHER SACRIFICE OR A SIN OFFERING.
No need for Jesus.
Funny how the list maker did not include this verse!
T'hillim / Psalm 40 is another psalm written by King David about his own experiences. It begins "For the conductor, of David a song. I have greatly hoped for the L-rd, and He extended [His ear] to me and heard my cry." T'hillim / Psalm 40:1-2.
Lines 3-6 (2-5 in Christian versions who either do not print line 1, or do not number it) do not speak of resurrection. "And He drew me up out of the roaring pit, from the thick mire, and He set my feet upon a rock, He established my steps." T'hillim / Psalm 40:3.
When was Jesus, even metaphorically, in a pit or in the muck and mire? None that I can recall in the Christian bible. David was often in dire situations, surrounded by enemies with death always a distinct possibility (he was a soldier). Likewise, the Jewish people have been rounded up and murdered -- shot in groups and thrown into pits, gassed to death in concentration camps with their bodies thrown into mass graves (pits). . . yet the Jewish nation survives, and David survived.
Jesus did not survive. G-d did not save Jesus' life.
"He put a new song into my mouth, a praise to our G-d, so that many may see and fear, and trust in the L-rd. Praiseworthy is the man who made the L-rd his trust, and did not turn to the haughty and those who turn to falsehood. You have done great things, You, O L-rd my G-d. Your wonders and Your thoughts are for us. There is none to equal You; were I to tell and speak, they would be too many to tell." T'hllim / Psalm 40:4-5.
These are beautiful words -- but what do they have to do with Jesus or resurrection?
Indeed, the psalmist says "There is none to equal You" -- G-d alone. No Jesus needed. David lived 1000 years before Jesus, and he knew that he didn't need Jesus. "There is none to equal You."
If only missionaries, rather than "cherry picking" the T'nach for proof texts, would read the beautiful words for what they actually say! David goes on to say in line 9 "O G-d, I desired to do Your will and [to have] Your Torah (וְ֝ת֥וֹרָתְךָ֗) within my innards." This is the Torah, the mitzvot, that very few Christians attempt to follow, saying that Jesus has done away with them. . .
Finally, the speaker discusses his sins.
Jesus was, supposedly, without sin. How, then, is this psalm about Jesus? T'hillim / Psalm 40:13 "my עֲ֭וֹנֹתַי / avon / iniquities have overtaken me and I could not see [them because] they are more numerous than the hairs of my head"
An avon / עוון is not a mistake (it is more serious than sin) -- it is a knowing violation of the rule of law -- the commission of a crime from an impulsive (think lustful). The subject of this psalm is admitting to committing these violations which are worse than sins!
How could this be about the sinless Jesus?
The subject is not only admitting to serious wrongdoing -- he says that his sins (avon / עוון) are more numerous than the hairs on his head!
John 20:20 (the supposed "proof") does not speak of the resurrection being joyful as claimed. The line says that Jesus' disciples were overjoyed when they saw him -- a different "joy" than the resurrection itself being joyful. Resurrection of the messiah is not a messianic prophecy -- indeed if the messiah fails to fulfill even one messianic prophecy before dying he is not the messiah. Jesus fulfilled not one of the true messianic prophecies (such as world peace). The T'nach tells us that Elijah and Elisha (two prophets) both performed resurrections -- and neither the prophets or those they resurrected were prayed to or through. The miracles go to G-d, not to the person who received said miracle. At any rate, this psalm in no way proves the claimed "prophecy."