T'hillim / Psalm 17 begins with the words "A prayer of David." A prayer. Not a prophecy. It is clear that this psalm is by David simply by the use of the words "my," "me," and "I" throughout the psalm. This has nothing to do with Jesus let alone his death and resurrection being predicted.
T'hillim / Psalm 17:15 has King David (speaking of himself) saying "I (David) will see Your face with righteousness; I will be satisfied with Your image upon the awakening."
R' David Kimchi (1160–1235) aka the Radak wrote "says David. The wicked have no delight in the world to come, but it is not so with me, for I am looking forward to and hoping to see G-d in the world to come. . . in (reward for the) righteousness I do in this world in not eating and living in luxury as they do."
Could David be speaking of resurrection versus some other form of olam haba (the world to come)? Possibly. Rashi (1040-1105) infers this speaks of resurrection not just of David, but of all the righteous who will be resurrected when the real messiah comes. Resurrection of the righteous is a messianic prophecy Jesus failed to fulfill. Rashi wrote "I will be satisfied with the vision of Your image when the dead awaken from their sleep. In many editions, the following appears at this point: Another explanation: I will be satisfied from seeing Your face when the dead awaken from their sleep, for they are in the likeness of Your image, for so it is stated (in Gen. 9: 6): “For in the image of God, He made man.”
The T'nach tells us that when we die our bodies decay, but our immortal soul does not die. The T'nach does speak of a time in the future when all righteous people will be resurrected. "The resurrection of the dead is a basic principle of the Torah of Moses. Anyone who does not believe it has no connection with the Jewish Nation. But [resurrection] is only for the righteous, as it states in B'reishit Rabbah: "Rain is for both the righteous and the wicked but resurrection is for the righteous alone." For how can the wicked be brought back to life when even during their lives they are considered dead? But the righteous, even when they die, are considered alive." The Rambam (Maimonides), (1135-1204 CE).
Ask yourself: if the T'nach tells us that one day ALL the righteous will be resurrected, how can it be a prophecy about the messiah who is one person? If anything, since all the righteous will resurrect, it is the OPPOSITE of a messianic prophecy.
There is no prophecy in the T'nach (bible) that the messiah will die and be resurrected. Ergo, even if this passage could be interpreted to be speaking of resurrection it does not prophesy or pre-ordain Jesus' birth, death and resurrection. Yet again we have the list maker gleaning through the T'nach (bible) for passages that in any way infer a link to Jesus, but ignores the context (the fact that King David wrote this about himself and constantly uses personal pronouns referring to himself).
Luke 24:6 does indeed speak of the resurrected Jesus, but this brings up the interesting point that the four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) all have very conflicting versions of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. In Matthew 28:6-7 Mary Magdalene and the "other Mary" are there and an angel tells "go quickly and tell his disciples he is going before you to the Galilee." But in Mark 16 Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome a young man in white (angel?) says "‘He is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him." Somehow Luke did not get the message because in chapter 24 he gives a different group being at the tomb. In Luke we have Mary Magdalene, Mary mother of James, Joanna and other women (how many unknown) being told by two men (not one angel) that Jesus was resurrected and they are NOT told to go to the Galilee, but to stay in Jerusalem (24:49). John 20 has Mary Magdalene at the tomb alone, and she sees the resurrected Jesus. So which story should you believe?
In any case, T'hillim / Psalm 17 does not prophesy Jesus' resurrection. It is a psalm written by, and about, King David.