Seventeen verses in the Christian bible describe Jesus as the “son of David.” References are often given to “And it will come to pass when your days (David) are finished to go with your forefathers, then I (G-d) shall raise up your seed after you, who will be of your sons, and I shall establish his kingdom. He will build Me a house, and I shall establish his throne forever.” Divrei Hayamim Alef / I Chronicles 17:11-12
Pointing to the fact that the messiah will be descended from King David.
Missionaries tend to ignore “Behold a son will be born to you; he will be a man of peace, and I shall give him peace from all his enemies around about, for Solomon will be his name, and I shall give peace and quiet to Israel in his days. He shall build a House in My Name, and he shall be to Me as a son, and I to him as a Father, and I shall prepare the throne of his kingdom forever.'” Divrei Hayamim Alef / I Chronicles 22:9-10.
Why do they ignore chapter 22 when it is nearly identical to chapter 17 -- which they insist refers to Jesus?
Because it clealry names King Solomon -- even though all the details are the same in both chapters.
Missionaries believe that Jesus was the only "son of David" (just as they often say Jesus was the only son of G-d). Both assumptions are in error. G-d refers to Israel as His firstborn son time and again. "This is what God says: Israel is My son, My firstborn." Sh'mot / Exodus 4:22. . . and all humans are the children of G-d.
What about "son of David"?
Missionaries seem to think this has to mean that Jesus was the messiah. Also wrong -- and on two major points.
The first point is that even though the Christian bible calls Jesus the "son of David" 17 times, it also tells us that Jesus was not the son of Joseph, but of the "holy spirit." If Jesus' biological father was not a Davidic human male of the tribe of Judah, descended from Kings David and Solomon then he was not elligible to be the messiah. Tribal lineage only passes to a Jewish child if the mother is Jewish and if the father is also Jewish and of a given tribe. IF Joseph was Jesus' biological father then Jesus would have been a "son of David" (as was Joseph), but both lineages in the Christian bible given for Joseph (which are conflicting) disqualify both Joseph and any of his biological male children from kingship (messiah).
The second point is that being a "son of David" is certainly a messianic requirement -- but it is "table stakes." A man must be of the tribe of Judah, through Kings David and Solomon, but he must also fulfill all of the messianic prophecies. Jesus fulfilled not one of them (world peace, returning the Jews to Israel, worldwide knowledge of G-d, etc.). . . On top of that the messiah will build the third Temple (Jesus' Temple had been around about 350 years before his birth and was destroyed a few decades after his death, ergo Jesus did not build the third Temple). . .
Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines -- he had many children, and those children had children. . . . being a "son of David" is important -- but it certainly did not make Joseph (or his male children) unique. Two famous heirs include רבי שלמה יצחקי Solomon Yitzach, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105 (aka "Rashi") and שלמה לוריא Solomon Luria, 1510 – November 7, 1573.
Some of the family trees (researched by Chaim Freedman) include:
1) Ancestry of King David
2) David Monarchy
3) Principal lines descended from King David
4) Exilarchs, Gaonim and Rabbis – descendants of Zerubavel
5) Descent of Rashi from Hillel and King David
6) Rashi’s Family Circle
7) Rashi Key Chart
8) Treves, Shapira, Luria links
10) Treves Family
11) Luria Family
12) Katzenellenbogen Family
13) Ancestry of the Vilna Gaon
15) Everels Altshuler
The point being that "son of David" does not = messiah. There have been, and still are, many sons of David alive in this world, but to date none of met the messianic prophecies.